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We will not be able to borrow books for you from another library due to the time it take to send and receive the books from the lending library. We recommend that you contact your nearest library to place an interlibrary loan.
Adams explores the learning theory of social constructivisim and its related pedagogy with a focus on learning and not performance. It identifies common principles and processes within the constructivist perspective which will help in my contributions to the paper by being able to relate the different theories and their pedagogies by making connections to the bigger picture.
Agostino, A. (1999). The relevance of media as artifact: Technology situated in context. Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 2(4). Retrieved March 8th, 2009 from http://www.ifets.info/journals/2_4/agostino.html
The author looks at the debate as to whether or not media influences learning. He uses the research of R.E. Clark to support the side that media is just a delivery means and that it is the method which influences learning not the media. This is hard to accept for people that believe various media should be integrated into the learning environment to help make it more authentic. He then takes a brief look at situated cognition and suggests (supported with quotes) propositions of John Dewey, Vygotsky and Gibson helped to create an infrastructure for this theory. He convincingly suggests that the research of media has been approached in an incorrect fashion and if we are to discover the true relevance of media, we need to research it based on its role as an embedded artifact of a community of practice. In order for this to occur there must be a paradigm shift away from traditional approaches to research towards a broader method. This article also supports the idea of media playing and integral part of a learning environment that has interaction, social as well as with artifacts, to create understanding, much like the others in this bibliography. This article was well written and makes a great argument against the methods used to support the idea that media does not influence learning.
Al-Bataineh, A., Anderson, S., Toledo, C. & Wellinski, S. (2008). A study of technology integration in the classroom. International Journal of Instructional Media, 35(4), 381-387.
Al-Bataineh describes a lot of pros and cons of integrating technology into the classroom. He and his partners conducted a study on implementation and integration into the classroom. They found that email and electronic grade books was the highest use of technology, and the lowest was using technology as an instructional device. This survey shows how hard it is to integrate technology into the classroom when you have teachers that are trained or interested in doing so.
Alansari, E. M. (2006). Implementation of cooperative learning in the center for community service and continuing education at Kuwait University. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 46(2), 265-282.
Alansari’s article discusses the benefits and achievements obtained by students in cooperative learning groups as opposed to those who were not. The article is based on adult learners, but nonetheless they are students in a school setting.The information in this article will be beneficial in proofing the benefits of social learning across a broad spectrum of many ages. It will also provide strong evidence for how social learning increases achievement. The source is credible, with multiple references listed. The article is also peer-reviewed.
Alexander, B. (2004). Emergent pedagogical and campus issues in the mobile environment. Educause Center for Applied Research Research Bulletin.2004(16). Retrieved March 14, 2009 from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERB0416.pdf
The focus of this article is how several campuses are handling the new opportunities and challenges that mobile technology has brought to the inside and outside of the classroom. It recognizes the difficulty that this technology is having on the pedagogical practices in academics. The article looks at several examples and comes to the conclusion that pedagogies are changing in regards to mobile technology, much like they did with other technologies. It also states that to some extent this technology will drive social practices and thus breakthroughs and changes to education. The article provided real world information that can be easily related to many situations. This article will be useful for readers search proven methods of pedagogical changes. Many examples are provided from campuses and directly related to the outcome of these changes. The article provides information for thought and reflection that will help establish new and innovative practices.
Allen, K. (2005). Online learning: Constructivism and conversation as an approach to learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42(3), 247-256.
Ken Allen, researcher at Anglia Polytechnic University, UK, has been in the education field for thirty years in England. The last nine years,Allen has been researching learning and technology with a focus on adult learners which led to his current research of creating an online research-based degree course for undergraduate students. He looks at the benefits of using the software program Talk 2 Learn in building learning communities which fosters a constructivist approach to teaching.
Alonso, F., et. al. (2005).An instructional model for web-based e-learning education with a blended learning process approach. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2), 217-35.
This article discusses instructional design as it relates to web-based learning. The authors outline a web-based instructional design strategy. This design is based in the constructivist theory. They refer to this as the e-learning instructional model. Perhaps adapting instructional design to web-based learning is needed. The authors seems to have a good idea here with this design; it seems to still stick with some of the same basic ideas from the constructivist ideals.
Ally, M. (2004). Foundation of educational theory for online learning. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi (Eds.), Theory and practice of online learning (pp. 3-31). Athabasca, Alberta, Canada: Athabasca University. Retrieved March 15, 2009 from http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/pdf/TPOL_book.pdf
In this article, Mohammed Ally gives an overview of educational theories as they apply to online learning. Ally emphasizes that no single learning theory can be followed, but several theories must be combined to develop online learning courses and materials. Ally specifically mentions including strategies from traditional schools of learning such as behaviorism (for the facts), cognitivism (for the processes and principles), and constructivism (high level thinking). Ally’s analysis of the combination of learning theories reflects the multi-dimensional nature of education, most especially online education.
Altun, S., et. al. (2007). Teacher and student beliefs on constructivist instructional design: a case study. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice. 7(1), 30-39.
This article was a case study on constructivist instructional design and its effects in a classroom. The data collected also includes students’ feelings toward this idea. It is a good article because it discusses a specific instance in which constructivist theories are applied to instructional design and how that design affected students’ learning as well as how it affected the teacher’s instruction.
Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2009). Epistemological and methodological issues for the conceptualization, development, and assessment of ICT-TPCK: Advances in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). Computers & Education, 52, 154-168.
Angeli and Valanides address the issue of combining pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) into ICT-TPCK which stands for Information and Communications Technologies Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. The authors address the issue of PCK not relating to technology, but TPCK not showing the whole picture of how pedagogy and content relate to technology. The parts of the article I found very interesting to my current topic for the final paper referred to the authors writing in referent to why ICT-TPCK is needed. Angeli and Valanides refer to the need for a research basis for integrating technology into the K-12 classroom. The research the authors perform is with pre-service teachers which relates to my topic.
In this article Charoula Angeli and Nicos Valanides explore the issues surrounding the changing field of pre-service teacher education and the relevance of technology integration in the content areas. They take on a transformative view of education theory. This can also apply to technology integration as it relates to distance education in the context of online learning as online learning can include nearly any content area.
Anson, C. M., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2009). Contrails of learning: Using new technologies for vertical knowledge-building. Computers and Composition, 26(1), 38-48.
Anson and Miller-Cochran explore a constructivist learning environment in graduate education which they argue was created by emerging technologies. The emerging technologies help the students build upon already existing knowledge and link information through the creation of a wiki. This may provide insight into the effect of emerging technologies on the constructivist learning theories and pedagogies.
Balioan, N., Hoeksema, K., Hoppe, U., & Milrad, M. (2006). Education for the 21st century- impact of ICT and digital resources. In D. Kumar & Turner J. (Eds.), IFIP 19th World Computer Congress: Vol. 210. (pp. 7-16). Boston: Springer.
Dr. Hoppe, Dr. Milard and Kay Hoeksema are with the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany and Dr. Baloian is with Universidad de Chile. These researchers belong to the project called Collaborative Learning and Distributed Experimentation (COLDEX) and this paper highlights challenge-based learning. The authors provide an accounting of learning pedagogy that influences the challenge-based learning (CBL) method. The projects that are highlighted in this paper are CoVis, Collaborative Visualization and DExT, Digital Experimentation Toolkits. In additional, they include an educational scenario to support CBL activities to promote global learning within the sciences. Connections to learning theories and other learning methods help support COLDEX’s development of CBL methods.
Bandura, A. (2009). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant & M. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects (3rd ed., pp. 94-124). New York: Routledge.
Bandura’s article describes the increasing role of the media and the effects of modeling. He discusses the challenges people would face without social interactions or learning from modeling. He breaks down his theory into the capabilities present and provides a diagram to display his modeling theory. Bandura is a very credible source, having studied social cognition and written many books and article on this theory. This article links social cognitions with the roles of media and mass communication. It provides a focus towards the effects of technology on social cognition.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Reviews of Psychology, 52, 1-26. Retrieved Mar. 16, 2009, from http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/Bandura2001ARPr.pdf
Bandura’s article discusses the conscious mind and the agnatic factors that influence it. These factors include self-regulatory capabilities and belief systems. He discusses what it means to be human (human agency). These include intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. He also describes the three modes of human agency: personal, proxy, and collective. With a number of references and Bandura’s expertise in Psychology, I have found this article to be credible. Bandura’s paper provides an understanding of where cognitions derive from.
Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development, Vol. 6. Six theories of child development (pp. 1-60). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Retrieved Mar. 9, 2009 from http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/Bandura1989ACD.pdf
Bandura’s paper explains the impact of social influences through modeling, instruction and social persuasion. The social influences are due to the environment and behaviors of people. These influences do not shape people rather it is a reciprocating interaction between all influences. No matter how people think or people grow, Bandura makes a strong point that they do it socially. This source is very credible, with multiple references and a credible Albert Bandura writing on his research of social cognition. This paper provides great focus on how people are thinking and behaviors are greatly impacted socially.
Barron, B. J. S., Schwartz, D. L., Vye, N. J., Moore, A., Petrosino, A., Zech L., et al. (1998). Doing with understanding: Lessons from research on problem- and project-based learning. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7 (3/4), 271-311.
Constructivism provides a platform for project-based learning, which can be one example of how educational technology is integrated into curricula today. This entry provides a discussion of actual examples of project-based learning in secondary classrooms and outlines the benefits of using such projects. This entry provides a specific example of constructivist theory in use in the classroom and thus provides more thorough information for analysis. The authors were provided with grants to conduct their research as part of the Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt.
Bearman, M., Cesnik, B. and Liddell, M. (2001). Random comparison of ‘virtual patient’ models in the context of teaching clinical communication skills. Medical Education, 35, 824-832.
This study compares the effects of two types of virtual patient models on communication skills in medical students. The problem-solving model is presented in the case study format and is based in exploratory or problem-based pedagogy. The narrative format is based on reflective learning through experience. Communication skills were assessed via evaluation of an interview with a simulated patient subsequent to completion of a randomly assigned tutorial. The authors conclude that further investigation is required, but the narrative design appears to have greater value in teaching communication skills. This article directly supports my research focus by offering a model other than the case-based approach more typically used in health care education. It contains credible information regarding these two types of virtual patient models, but I have concerns in two areas. First, the statistical analysis doesn’t appear to fully support the conclusions of the authors. Second, teaching and evaluating communication skills is complex and these skills are unlikely to be significantly improved after only one virtual patient encounter.
Beatham, M. (2008, September). Tools of inquiry: Separating tool and task to promote true learning. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 37(1), 61-70.
The author, Mark Beatham, Ed.D, of this article is an associate professor and an epistemologist, maintains a faculty position as Teacher Education Unit Program Leader, Combined B.A./M.S.T. Adolescence Programs at Plattsburgh State University of New York. This article aids in developing an understanding of what and how teachers teach. Beatham believes that teachers mistake tools used to teach a topic as the topic itself. His analysis of three math lessons clearly show teachers use calculations to solve problems and believe this to be math. On the contrary, the calculations are the tools used to understand math. He further concludes if teachers make clear that educational technologies aid in inquiry of the subject, students would experience less confusion about learning.
Beldarrain, Y. (2006). Distance education trends: Integrating new technologies to foster student interaction and collaboration. Distance Education, 27(2), 139-153.
Social software, here defined as Web 2.0 technologies such as blogs, wikis, and podcasts, have the potential to promote interaction in online learning thereby enhancing the learning environment. In this paper, Beldarrain explores examples of current uses of social software in distance education. While the paper is not designed to be a comprehensive use study of social software, it does offer a look at how each of these tools could be applied in the classroom. One of the affordances of these new technologies is student social interaction and collaborative knowledge construction. However, along with this affordance comes the need to adjust teaching methodologies to support technology mediated student “knowledge creation” and increased student interaction. The author refers to this adjusted methodology as the “new models of teaching.” Unfortunately, a framework for this new model is never defined in this paper and no specific citations are given for the model in question. This paper was a good overview and discussion of Web2.0 in the distance classroom discussing both the technology and the impact of that technology on current theories of instruction. The theories of anchored instruction, situated cognition, engagement theory, and contribution-oriented pedagogy are discussed explicitly. The one area that I felt the author could have spent a bit more time investigating was affect and how that is related to enhanced interaction and engagement. Beldarrain’s incorporation of learning theories into this paper reaffirmed my feeling that Web 2.0 technologies are having an impact on the way that current educational theories are applied to the classroom. I found this paper to be a good look at current EdTech trends, and I think it will be useful in my research.
Bell, P., & Winn, W. (2000). Distributed cognitions, by nature and by design. In Jonassen, D.H. & Land, S.M. (Eds.), Theoretical foundations of learning environments (pp. 123-145). Mahwah, New Jersey:Lawrence Erlbarum Associates, Publishers.
The authors use a vignette of a chemistry lab--where the students are participating in a learning environment that makes use of various technologies,
artifacts, and media as well as social interaction-- to help examine the nature of Distributed Cognition. This method provides a look at the theory in
action and each participant (student, artifact, technology) is shown to play an important role in the learning process. You can see cognitive theories
such as schema development happening as the students are actively involved in the learning process. In a second example used by the authors, a
class is using an integrated technology tool known as SenseMaker. This tool and the methods used, produces a high amount of social interaction
amongst the learners in this environment. The argument maps created by the students using SenseMaker show a distribution of different perspectives and help tocreate an environment where constructivist idea of construction of knowledge is strongly present. The authors do a good job at introducing
the ideathat the sharing of information amongst other learners, artifacts (which help to scaffold) and the group, help to make the learning more
authentic. Theideas presented in this article are similar to the other articles as they are all supporting the idea of a learning environment based on
Benson, A., Lawler, C., & Whitworth, A. (2008). Rules, roles and tools: activity theory and the comparative study of e-learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(3), 456-457. doi:10.111/j.1467-8535.2008.00838.x
The flexibility of Activity Theory within the realm of online learning is the basis of this research. Two online programs are compared, one in the United States and one in the UK, both using Moodle as their chosen online classroom platform. The authors contrast the unique ways each online program uses Moodle while incorporating Activity Theory. By comparing two unique online Master’s programs using the same online classroom platform, the authors are able to provide some evidence that Activity Theory provides enough flexibility to successfully support diverse online learning situations.
Berger, A. A. (1999). Signs in contemporary culture: An introduction to semiotics. Salem, Wisconsin: Sheffield Publishing Company.
Berger’s Introduction to Semiotics provides background information to define visual literacy including metonymy, forms of signs, problems, identities and latent meanings. I have read this book to further my understanding of images and what they represent so that I may make connections between the images, what it represents, and how that relationship applies to learning.
Bergin, et. al. (2003). Interactive simulated patient- experiences with collaborative e-learning in medicine. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29(3), 387-400.
The interactive simulated patient (ISP) is used to improve clinical problem solving skills in medical students and is designed to stimulate student centered learning. The ISP has been utilized and evaluated at three international universities and multiple articles have been published regarding this tool. This particular study looked at how the ISP could be used to engage and motivate students and promote collaborative learning.Results found that students thought that the virtual cases were a better way to learn clinical problem solving and were more realistic, fun and interesting than paper-based cases.Students commented that it was a valuable experience to “play” doctor but that this should not be substituted for a opportunity to work with real patients later in the educational process. They also commented that learning with the ISP was more effective when collaboration occurred between pairs of students rather than with larger groups or individually.The details provided in this article provide a fascinating look into how online medical simulations can be developed and definitely support my research focus. The authors represent three well-respected international medical schools-- Karolinska Institutet, Uppsala University, and Stanford University. The list of references is surprisingly short for a peer-reviewed article and more than 1/4 of the articles referenced were published by the primary author.
Bergin, R.A. and Fors, U.G.H. (2003). Interactive simulated patient- an advanced tool for student-activated learning in medicine and health.Computers and Education, 40, 361-376.
In health care education it can be difficult to provide students with real-life patient encounters. Bergin and Fors (2003) describe the development of an Interactive Simulated Patient (ISP) designed to support student-centered, collaborative, and problem-based learning in medical, dental, nursing, and other allied health profession programs. Field tests found a positive student response to the ISP with 80% rating the simulation as realistic. This article is credible and the authors have published multiple studies in peer-reviewed journals regarding the ISP. The ISP has been in development for well over a decade and many of the references cited reflect the long-term nature of this process. This information is directly applicable to my research focus and contains valuable details regarding the development of simulations for health care education and the underlying pedagogy.
Bodomo, A. (2006). Interactivity in web-based learning. International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies, 1(2), 18-30. Retrieved March 9, 2009, from PsycINFO database
The author of this article investigates first what is meant by interactivity in online courses. There are multiple interactions in an online environment including student interaction with the course media, resources, experts, and electronic exchange. These interactions are critical to the success of the course and all must include interactivity to be successful.
As with other articles, this author stresses the importance of interaction between the class members in the online environment. The teacher’s role should be one of fostering online dialogue without overpowering the conversation.
Boeree, G. (1999). Social psychology basics. Shippensburg, PA: Shippensburg University. Retrieved Mar. 9, 2009, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/socpsy.html
Dr. Boeree’s article is on the social aspects of learning, such as environment, observation, and imitation. He discusses how behaviors are learned through social communications and interactions. His article lacks in connecting social learning with education, but it clearly explains the different types of social learning. Dr. Boeree is a psychology professor at Shippensburg University and is well qualified to write on this topic; however, his paper is limited in references. His paper was clear to read and easy to follow, which allowed me to gain focus on the different types of social learning.
Borsheim, Carlin, Merritt, Kelly, & Reed, Dawn (2008). Beyond technology for technology's sake: Advancing multiliteracies in the twenty-first century. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, 82(2), 87-90.
Borsheim, Merritt, and Reed review multiliteracies. They consider multiliteracies to be as people interact and use text and how technology has impacted the nature of text. This model is based off of the constructivist model of learning. With integrating technology into the curriculum it is most important that we still reach every child and not generalize that every student has the same experience with technology. Classroom curriculum and technology has to be something that is taken very seriously as it is implemented to all students.
Bostock, S. J. (1998, July). Constructivism in mass higher education: A case study. British Journal of Educational Technology, 29(3), 225-240.
Bostock’s case study focuses on a semester-long course for undergraduate students in both a traditional and non-traditional setting. There were suggested lectures, but after the first week student attendance dropped drastically. The author focuses on five main areas: authentic assessment, student responsibility and initiative, generative learning strategies, authentic learning context, and cooperative support. The study took a class that was usually taught at the university and transformed into a class where students generated a final course report on a research topic of their choice. The students were supported with access to computers, the Internet, and a graduate assistant. Although this case study deals with constructivism and higher education, it does not particularly deal with teachers as I am trying to focus my study. It does, though, offer good information into what an initial design at a university level might look like. The case study does offer quantitative data as others like Gibson and Skiaalid did not, but the study is from 1998, so the statistics and opinions might have lost some relevance to current technology opinions. The authors have adult and IT experience and seems to have gained the knowledge of the case study first hand.
Bowers-Campbell, J. (2008). Cyber "Pokes": Motivational antidote for developmental college readers. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 39(1), 74-87.
Bowers-Campbell’s article discusses the many benefits of social networking. The article describes how Facebook can be implemented into the classroom to increase student’s self-efficiency and learning.The article understands the interests of students in this day and age. Its main goal is to target and use student interest to enhance student understanding. This source is credible being as there are numerous references to support statements and the source has been peer-reviewed.
Bronack, S., Riedl, R., & Tashner, J. (2006). Learning in the zone: A social constructivist framework for distance education in a 3-dimensional virtual world. Interactive Learning Environments, 14(3), 219-232. Retrieved March 13, 2009, from PsycINFO database
When this paper was written, Bronack, Tashner, and Riedl were all professors at Appalachian State University. Bronack identifies himself as a social constructivist, a teacher, and a facilitator who creates learning communities for students to learn in groups and activity. The authors examine a three-dimensional virtual world looking at how they can create communities of practice to help online students and teachers interact while creating learning and expertise.
Brown, K., & Cole, M. (2000). Socially shared cognition: System design and the organization of collaborative research. In Jonassen, D.H. & Land, S.M. (Eds.), Theoretical foundations of learning environments (pp. 197-214). Mahwah, New Jersey:Lawrence Erlbarum Associates, Publishers.
The authors use research done on an afterschool activity known as the Fifth Dimension to introduce the ideas of Socially-Shared Cognition. This theory is connected to cultural psychology and is characterized by joint mediated action which helps learning to occur. It rejects the ideas of stimulus response in favor of the active mind in connection to its environment as the role for interpretation. The authors delve deeply into the Fifth Dimension and cover a case study of the interaction between a learner using a computer program, a college intern, and a college researcher to adequately provide proof of the value of this theory. Through the interactions you can see scaffolding occur which is based on the constructivist idea of helping learners construct their knowledge. It is through this study that the interaction between the participants in this learning environment (learner, computer, intern—which serves as scaffolding, and the researcher) all help to make this learning environment more authentic. The ideas presented in this article are similar to the other articles as they are all supporting the idea of a learning environment based on activity and interaction. Brown and Cole are both professors at University of California in San Diego and have written papers about the Fifth Dimension project. The Fifth Dimension project has different names depending on where it is implemented. Common components are: a wizard, children between the ages of 6 to 14 and usually placed in an after school setting. Some programs hire a site coordinator. Children are engaged in authentic problem solving, a staple of social constructivist theory. Each learning environment takes on a look of its own based on the community and participates involved with the program. Brown and Cole use a real-world example to show the benefits of socially shared cognition in the community. This article explains how theoretical ideas can be applied to classrooms and afterschool settings. The program utilizes University students to work with children afterschool on computers through a program known as the Fifth Dimension. The article is based on research taken directly from observation and experiences obtained during the design and implementation of the after-school program. This article provides a concrete example for my research focus.
Camp, W. G., & Doolittle, P. E. (1999). Constructivism: The career and technical education perspective. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 16(1). Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JVTE/v16n1/doolittle.html
Doolittle, the director of the School of Education at Virginia Tech, and Camp, Virginia Tech professor, support a shift from behaviorism to constructivism in the classroom. They have also drawn upon the research of an impressive list of scholarly resources to discuss the need for this shift but also to discuss the challenges that are presented. They outline the fundamentals for a constructivist classroom, but call for more research about this shift, stating that there is much work to be done to make this necessary transition more smoothly.
Castro D.J., Donna J., Taylor, Lydotta M., & Walls, Richard T. (2004). Tools, time, and strategies for integrating technology across the curriculum. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 17, 121-136.
This article presents research and findings of the Phase 9 study involving the Board of Education, W.V. Department of Education, fifty-five county boards of education, W.V. colleges and universities, communication companies, and the EdVenture Group. The study was a result of a Technology Innovation Challenge Grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Education. Teachers, in collaborative groups of three, created two curriculum units containing five lessons each which focused on constructivist teaching techniques and integrated technology as a learning tool These teacher, as well as teacher not using these units, and students were observed, surveyed, and assessed on the success of the closely followed curriculum units. The findings conclude teacher and student use of constructivist techniques and technology as a tool increased and learning was more effective.
Cavanaugh, C., Barbour, M., & Clark, T. (2009). Research and practice in K-12 online learning: A review of open access literature. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(1). Retrieved March April 2, 2009 from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/607/1182
This article investigates the abundance of research in various areas of online learning and course design. The authors reiterate the reasons online learning has seen more immersion in K-12 education, the types of virtual schools, and what are considered the challenging components of virtual schools. The authors state that the amount of evidence on virtual schools is limited and has focused mainly on the benefits of online school construction and management from the teacher and administrator's perspective. It is evident from the number of articles available that more research is needed for groups such as the designers, technology coordinators, and guidance counselors. Areas with a limited amount of literature include student motivation, student readiness, and improving student skills. The authors state, as has been stated in other articles, that virtual schools "may facilitate better instruction than traditional classrooms" but it should be stressed that "there is no guarantee" that this will happen without careful consideration to the course and the learners. Too often the benefits and allure of online learning overshadow the need for education and do not use the full potential of the technology.
Chambers, J. M., Carbonaro, M., & Rex, M. Scaffolding knowledge construction through robotic technology: A middle school case study . Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education, 6, 55-70.
The authors of this article use a pilot program case study of the integration of a robotics course to show how the integration of this technology can support higher learning skills. The environment was based on Constructivist and Constructionist theories which are connected to the theories of situated, distributed and socially-shared cognition. The environment allowed the students to interact with various aged students in collaborative groups (a lot of interaction between participants in the learning community), the technology of flowcharts to help design programs (this served a scaffolding), and with the robot kits themselves. The problem solving activities that arose were linked directly to the environment in which the problems occurred. This is one of the tenants of communities of practice and situated cognition. This article gives a great example of how the technologies used in the learning environment act as artifacts that are interacted with to assist the learning process. The authors spend a great deal of time explaining how the research was conducted so as to paint a clearer understanding of the validity of the claims made. This article is connected to the ideas expressed in the articles about Distributed Cognition, Socially shared Cognition and Situated Cognition.
Chang, C., & Wang, H. (2008). Issues of inquiry learning in digital learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40 (1), 169-173. doi:10.1111/j.1467.5835.2008.00850.x
This article explores the strengths and weaknesses of inquiry based learning. The article then addresses the shifts in these strengths and weaknesses when inquiry based learning occurs in digital learning environments. While some stated weaknesses of inquiry based learning are absolved through the uniting of digital learning environments, this article prompts many more questions that it resolves. The article does give some practical experiences using inquiry based learning with technology, most being based on scientific or mathematical content.
Chen, L.S., Cheng, Y.M., Weng, S.F., Chen, Y.G., & Lin, C.H. (2009). Applications of a time sequence mechanism in the simulation cases of a web-based medical problem-based learning system. Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), 149–161.
This study looks at the development of a web-based problem-based learning system thatimplements the use of a time sequence within each teaching case in which a patient’s condition unfolds over time. The article describes the complicated multimedia system that allows students to evaluate virtual patients in a way that better reflects the true clinical picture. The learning process used in this study was structured according to “The Seven-Jump Procedure in PBL” and incorporates the theoretical framework of authentic learning. The description of the project was quite extensive.However, the research study itself was rather brief and was limited to a Likert scale summarizing student responses to a variety of questions asked by the researchers. Learning outcomes were not looked at. The authors admit that these results are preliminary and work remains to be done in this area. The reference list is adequate and contains sources from a variety of journals including publications by recognized leaders in the field.
Chen, Chao-Hsiu (2008).Why do teachers not practice what they believe regarding technology integration. The Journal of Educational Research, 102, 65-75.
Chen’s research is focused on teacher beliefs. When you try and integrate technology into the classroom, it needs to be what the teacher believes and wants to facilitate in their classroom. He also states again that the teachers need to be aware of the learning theories and be able to practice as a constructivist. This learning theory seems to come up again and again in the research of integrating technology in the curriculum.
Chen, Sue-Jen(2007). Instructional design strategies for intensive online courses: An objectivist-constructivist blended approach. Journal of Interactive Online Learning,6(1), 72-86. Retrieved on April 29, 2009 from http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/PDF/6.1.6.pdf
This article provides a comparison of Objectivist and Constructivist design. Not only does it provide this comparison, it discusses its use in an online summer course. The author believes that instructional design for online courses should be modified to a more constructivist design. Keep in mind that the constructivist learner is controlling the learning process.
Cramer, Susan R. (2007).Update your classroom with learning objects and twenty-first century skills. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, 80, 126-132.
Cramer reviews different types of materials that can be found on the Internet to enhance lessons in the classroom. She states that teaching with technology changes the curriculum and how it is taught. Teaching with technology engages students into inquiry-based learning. Using authentic instruction and assessment takes the student into the real world and gives them opportunity to put their lessons into context. Integrating technology into the classroom really puts more learning on the student.
Crawford , Caroline, & Brown, Evelyn (2003). Integrating internet based mathematical manipulatives within a learning environment. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching,22, 169-180.
Crawford and Brown present using digital manipulatives in math. Manipulatives are not a new thing to math but using the Internet to retrieve them enhances the students learning. They found that it gains the learners attention, engages the student in productive work, and increases perceptions of control. It takes a lot of thought and consideration in the design of the course that this would be used in.
Cronje, J. (2006).Paradigms regained: Toward integrating objectivism and constructivism in instructionaldesign and the learning sciences. Educational Technology Research and Development,54(4), 387-416.
This article is about integrating the Objectivist and Constructivist approaches to Instructional Design. The author feels these two theories are complementary rather than oppositional. Several tables are offered as examples of how objectivism and constructivism relate. The author proposes a design that incorporates both theories rather than choosing one over the other.
Cunningham, C.E., Deal, K., Neville, A., Rimas, H. and Lohfeld, L. (2006). Modeling the problem-based learning preferences of McMaster University undergraduate medical students using a discrete choice conjoint experiment.Advances in Health Sciences Education, 11, 245-266. doi:10.1007/s10459-006-0003-6
Problem-based learning (PBL) began at McMaster University in 1969. In 2002 a decision was made to improve their problem-based medical education program and involve students in the redesign. Results show that 86% of the students “preferred a small-group, web-supported, problem-based learning approach led by content experts who facilitated group process”. This scholarly article is current (2005) and the authors are well-qualified to present the research. It contains a review of problem-based learning that is consistent with other research. I was initially intrigued by this article because of the suggestion that the birthplace of problem-focused learning (McMaster University) was changing the focus of their educational model. Upon further review of the article, it does not support the direction of my research. Rather, it focuses on the market research methodology used to determine student preferences. Only two references are made to educational technology- the preference of students for web-supported learning and the taskforce that will be developed to add electronic enhancements to the program.
Dede, C. (2000). Emerging influences of information technology on school curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32(2), 281-303. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.virtual.gmu.edu/ss_pdf/DedeJCS.pdf
Dede presents a very interesting overview of the influences of emerging IT on school curriculum. Dede argues that IT can be integrated into the curriculum in positive ways that help to engage and educate the millennial learner but that this integration necessitates changes in how we deliver curriculum. Dede asserts that the question is not how can technology improve what we are already doing, but rather how these emerging technologies can be used to enhance education in ways that take us further than before. Using mini vignettes of several NSF funded classroom IT integration projects, Dede illustrates how emerging technologies can be used to assist low achieving students or to teach complex or abstract skills not addressed by our traditional curriculums (e.g. modeling, manipulation of complex data, and multi-level data handling). The case put forward by Dede was well supported with theories such as project-based learning, constructivism, and discovery learning; however, there was little empirical data presented. However, there are barriers to curricular change; Dede addressed this saying “the primary barriers to altering curricular, pedagogical, and assessment practices are not technological or economic, but psychological, political, and cultural.” Dede’s was hypothesis was well-presented and supported. The only thing I believe could have strengthened Dede’s argument was a presentation of empirical data.
Desai, M., Hart, J., & Richards, T. (2008). E-learning: paradigm shift in education. Education, 129 (2), 327-334.
This article explores the change in education, both theory and practice, with the advancement of technology. Online learning is explored and dissected bringing to light strengths and weaknesses. Learning is compared between a brick and mortar building and an online learning environment. Theoretically, much of the research and observation supporting e-learning have aspects of constructivism. The authors push the field of education toward redefining teaching and learning in today’s society.
Deubel, P. (2003). An investigation of behaviorist and cognitive approaches to instructional multimedia design. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia,12(1), 63-90.
This article investigates the similarities and differences between the behaviorist and cognitivist approaches to instructional design. The author discusses the use of multimedia design incorporating both learning theories. It is a good source for someone who wants to look at how to incorporate technology into instructional design using either behaviorism or cognitivism. The author cites examples of each design method such as the Dick and Carey model and Gagne’s model.
de Villiers, M. (2007). An action research approach to the design, development and evaluation of an interactive e-learning tutorial in a cognitive domain. Journal of Information Technology Education, 6, 455-479.
This article contains research about e-learning software designed in the cognitive domain. This is a case study about the University of South Africa and some of their CAI software. This article is a good article because it provides a good example of the use of cognitive theories in instructional design.
Dillon, P. (2004). Trajectories and tensions in the theory of information and communication technology in education. British Journal of Educational Studies, 52(2), 138-150.
Dillon explores the assumptions and influence constructivism on information and communication technology in education. He also looks at how the different forms of constructivism are interacting with technology and information. Dillon magnifies the current issues regarding the field of ICT which includes information and communication technology and educational technology, and finding coherent theoretical guidelines in the context of acquiring knowledge. He dissects social constructivism, situativity, action-theoretical constructivism, and the information transmission approach and their uses in the ICT field. He makes apparent glaring holes in the theoretical fabric defining ICT under one learning approach. Dillon promotes an “ecology of ideas” where “competing ideas can exit simultaneously” as research continues and the theory behind ICT in education evolves.
This article focuses on the use of portable digital media players, especially iPods in education platforms. It explores the use of this technology along with the individual use and individual learning environments. Information is provided on current research and establishes that current research focuses on the use of mobile technologies infused within the classroom or outside learning environment. The article goes on to provide various studies and implementations from many different areas of education. Each of these examples included a short synopsis of the research results. In conclusion, the article states that iPods are being used and are the main pedagogy of choice and that students are learning from them. It also goes on to establish that little research has been done that demonstrates the efficiency of the mobile devices. This article provided a great deal of information for the reader. The portion of the article that seems to have the most relevance was hidden in the article. The discovery of high and low working memory in regards to the efficiency of iPods was provided at the very end of the article which may not be the best place for the information.
Ely, D. (2008). Frameworks of educational technology. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39 (2), 245-250.
Ely reviews the way in which learning theories have contributed or amended the field of educational technology. Through this review, Ely explains how this causes difficulty in defining the field of educational technology. The article answers many questions regarding why confusion exists behind learning with technology and theoretical foundations. The article points out that many find disagreement in what educational technology actually is and explains why defining the field is difficult.
Faryadi, Q. (2007)Instructionaldesign models: What a revolution! Retrieved on April 29, 2009 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/28/03/f0.pdf
This paper examines different ID models such as ASSURE and Robert Gagne. This paper is a good resource when researching different Constructivist design models. It is important to note the differences between these models. This paper is a good analysis of these models and the theories that drive them.
Felten, P. (2008). Visual literacy. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 40(6), 60-64.
Felten examines the connection between visual literacy and emerging technologies and how they are becoming central to communication. It also reviews the study of physiological and cognitive systems involved in visual perception. The exploration of visual cognition and perception will support the relationship between visual literacy and cognitive learning theories.
Fox, E. J. (2006).Functional contextualism in learning and instruction: Pragmatic science or objectivism revisited. Educational Technology Research and Development,54(1), 5-36.
This article suggests the idea of constructivist instructional design is not as effective as functional contextualism. The author advocates this new theory, not as a replacement but as an upgrade to constructivism. The author feels that constructivist instructional design is over used. Is contextualism merely an objectivist idea renamed? Some critics of this article suggest it could be. The author advocates functional contextualism over constructivism, however this view is not a widely held view by a majority of instructional designers.
Freitas, S. d., & Neumann, T. (2009). The use of ‘exploratory learning’ for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments. Computers & Education, 52(2), 343-352.
The use of ‘exploratory learning’ for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments presents an overview of an exploratory (or experiential as the authors use both terms) learning model (EML) developed by the authors. The EML was designed to assist instructors in reevaluating how they teach in virtual environments and in producing more engaging curricula. Developed based on Kolb’s constructivist experiential learning model, the EML endeavors to shift the classroom focus from just content delivery to looking at entire learning experiences. According to the authors, "Teaching in these contexts provides less emphasis upon curriculum and more emphasis upon sequencing learning experiences, meta-reflection, peer assessment and group work.” The authors presented a very thorough overview of the EML model and its relationship to prior theories; however, the case studies and conclusions presented were not as strong. The authors presented two case studies, both medically themed games. While the authors relate the case studies back to the EML model, I do not feel that they did a very good job in breaking down the game to match the various components of their theory; they took a broad stroke approach to the comparison rather than a granular one. Overall the paper presented a strong background and support base for their EML model, further research on the effectiveness of the theory would be a nice addition to the support of this model. Like several of the other papers presented in this bibliography, the EML is rooted in constructivist principals, and I believe it will be a nice tie in with my research topic.
Freitas, S., Oliver, M. Mee, A. & Mayes, T. (2007). The practitioner perspective on the modeling of pedagogy and practice. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 26-38. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2007.00241.x
This article evaluates the Becta (British Educational Communication Technology Agency) learning model MEEL (Modeling Effective E-Learning) as explored by K-12 teachers, Post-16 educators, and community learners. This model, being presented as a work in progress, was molded and apprised by the three different groups both prior to and after using the model.
Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & Gaming, 33(4), 441-467. DOI: 10.1177/1046878102238607
In this paper Garris et al. provide a through overview of the current state of educational gaming research, their proposed model based on that research, as well as a comprehensive discussion of their model and future directions. Educational games have been poorly defined since their incorporation into the classroom, however as we shift towards a more student centered approach to learning, they are becoming more popular. This article sought to explore how and why games interest and motivate students as well as how they impact student achievement. Through a well-cited literature review the authors identified six aspects that are important to the success of an academic game’s ability to foster intrinsic motivation, flow, and learning. The characteristics identified were: fantasy, rules/goals, sensory stimuli, challenge, mystery, and control. A game that adequately addresses all six of these characteristics should be better equipped at helping a player to enter, what the authors have called, and a game cycle. A game cycle is a cyclical process involving user judgment, an elicited behavior, followed by immediate feedback through which the user gains some knowledge. I found this paper to be well-written and very thorough. The educational gaming model they suggest appears to be soundly rooted in theory aligning nicely with Kolb’s theory of experiential learning, the zone of proximal development, as well as other theories of constructivist learning. Due to the nature of this paper, the impact of games on learning theory is not directly investigated but the findings of this paper reinforce the materials presented in Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model (Kiili, 2005).
Garrison, D.R. (1993). Quality and access in distance education: Theoretical consideration. In D. Keegan (Ed.), Theoretical Principles of Distance Education (pp. 9-21). New York: Routledge.
In this article, D. Randy Garrison proposes that discussion and debate of distance education centers around two main topics: quality and accessibility. Garrison argues that these concerns are really not helpful and can even distract from both theoretical and practical understanding of distance education. He states that the distance or separation is overemphasized, and the only real difference between distance and non-distance learning is that there is a mediator in distance learning. The quality and accessibility of education are not determined by the distance between teacher and student, but the methodologies that are employed in instruction.
Gemino, A., & Parker, D. (2009). Use case diagrams in support of use case modeling: deriving understanding from the picture. Journal of Database Management, 20(1), 1-24.
Gemino’s study uses UML use case modeling and The Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning to hypothesize that the inclusion of a diagram (visual) in instruction enhances learning. The paper supports the use of graphic representations in conjunction with text to create more effective learning environments. This paper relates to my research topic by introducing a theory that applies to digital visual literacy.
Gerber, S., & Scott, L. (2007). Designing a learning curriculum and technology’s role in it. Educational Technology Research & Development, 55(5), 461-478.
This article details the process that was undertaken in developing and online master’s course. The course designer’s and the author’s give insight into their decisions for the course construction using social constructivism. Students were asked to participate and consider themselves JPF’s or “Just Plain Folks” as the course was designed to introduce students to research methodologies. The authors point out that often online courses, specifically the constructivism approach, focus too much on the technology and the curriculum is designed around the technology instead of using the technology. The authors took an interesting approach in using cell phones to facilitate spontaneous answers. They sent text messages to students at random times. The students were to leave a voicemail with their response. The voicemail was then transcribed and made available to the rest of the class. This was an interesting approach and was designed to make the student’s responses more spontaneous. Other approaches were the use of bulletin boards and online reading assignments.
Gibson, S., & Skaalid, B. (2004). Teacher professional development to promote constructivist uses of the Internet: a study of one graduate-level course. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(4), 577-592.
Gibson and Skiaalid describe a case study of educators in a graduate level course experiencing and learning about constructivism. The teachers were engaged in activities based on constructive theory then challenged to create activities for their classrooms. The course challenged the teachers’ views of constructive or student centered learning particularly dealing with the Internet. The study offers opinions of in-service teachers dealing with constructivism in the classroom. The article lacks specific statistics and focuses more on a qualitative research.
Gokool-Ramdoo, S. (2008). Beyond the theoretical impasse: extending the applications of transactional distance theory. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(3), 1-17.
This article discusses Transactional Distance Theory which is a theory that in mainly connected to distance learning. The author proposes that TDT can be adopted as a global theory for distance learning. These claims are supported by the use of comparing other theories within this field with TDT and showing that these other theories can be placed under TDT successfully. The author also suggests that TDT can also help with the creation of policy and quality control issues in distance education. As TDT is connected to the area of distance education it is very much connected to the use of technology as this is the manner of content distribution. This theory also supports the idea that learning will occur based on a give and take between the teacher and learner where the learner takes on more responsibility for their own learning. The communication and interactions between the learner and teacher make the transactional distance between them shorten and thus improves learning. The overall result of this process is the creation of an autonomous learner. This paper mentions some connections with other learning theories but doesn’t do it that well. I include this paper as it discuses TDT which is a theory that relies heavily on technology and its use to promote learning. In this article Sushita Gokool-Ramdoo, of the University of South Australia, proposes that Transactional Distance Theory, or TDT, be accepted as a global theory in development of distance education programs. Gokool-Ramdoo claims that TDT is the most comprehensive theory, incorporating other widely-discussed theoretical perspectives and expanding further.In demonstrating how TDT transitions learning from a behaviorist to constructivist, Gokool-Ramdoo appeals to a broader audience of theoretical opinion. She also contends that TDT can be applied to other approaches to learning such as ADDIE.
Gold, S. (2001). A constructivist approach to online training for online teachers. Journal for Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(1), 35-57. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from