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Mla Format Research Paper In Text Citations Mla

MLA Citation Examples

Based on the MLA Handbook, 8th Edition, 2016

Some General Rules

Works Cited List Examples

Need More Help?

For further guidance on MLA citations, please visit The MLA Style Center. You can also ask a librarian for help with citation-related questions. 

Need the 7th Edition?

See MLA Citation Examples: 7th Edition.


Some General Rules

In-Text Citations


What You Are Citing

In-Text Citation

The entire work
(or a work that has no page numbers)

Include information in the text of your paper that will allow the reader to locate the source in your works cited list.

If it is not possible to include this information in the text, follow the sentence where the citation needs to be made with an in-text citation containing only the name of the author.

In his article "Allston Gothic," local historian Forman Jackson demonstrates how completely the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents.

OR

A recent newspaper article demonstrated just how thoroughly the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents (Jackson).

A specific page

(Cortois 70)

If the author's name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place

Jacobs has argued this point (190-210).

Multi-volume set

(Green 1: 112-14)
"1" is the volume number.

Citing multiple authors

See Authors, below.



Authors

One author

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Courtois, Charles A.

(Cortois 70)



Two authors

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Martin, Jonathan A., and Christopher Jackson.

(Martin and Jackson 127-28)



Three or more authors

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Fontela, Pablo, et al.

If a work has more than 2 authors, MLA gives you the option of listing only the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others").

(Fontela et al. 153-54)



Group author

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Modern Language Association.

(Modern Language Association 111)



No authors listed

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

"Hints and Notions." The Decorator and Furnisher, vol. 6, no. 2, May 1885, pp. 61-68. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=www.jstor.org/stable/25584271.

List that source by title in your works cited list. The title should be followed by the name of the source in the citation, and the remainder of the citation composed as appropriate for the source type. Alphabetize reference list entries beginning with a title using the primary word of the title (excluding a, an, or the).

("Hints and Notions" 61)

In-text citations should include the title and the page number(s) of the text you are quoting or referring to, with the titles of articles in quotations, and the titles of books or Web sites italicized. In cases where the title contains a colon, use only the text before the colon in the in-text citation.



Titles

Titles of books, periodicals, art works, reports and Web sites are italicized. Please check the appropriate sample citation on this page to make sure you are using italics correctly.

Dates

With the exception of May, June and July, the names of the months must be abbreviated in MLA works cited lists as follows:

  • January = Jan.
  • February = Feb.
  • March = Mar.
  • April = Apr.
  • August = Aug.
  • September = Sept.
  • October= Oct.
  • November = Nov.
  • December = Dec.

Undated Sources: When the source you are citing has no publication date, simply omit that part of the citation. Do not write "No date" or "N.d.".

Source

Example

No date given

Jane Austen Society of Australia. "Sense & Sensibility." Jane Austen Society of North America. Map. www.jasna.org/info/images/map-ss-1200.jpg.



Volume and Issue Numbers

Volume and issue numbers are often not available for articles in online periodicals. In these cases simply follow the date of the magazine or journal with a period in your works cited list citation, omitting the volume number where necessary.

Source

Example

Journal volume and issue number available

Child and Family Behavior Therapy, vol. 26, no.1, 2004, pp. 88-96.

Online periodical where volume and issue numbers are not given

Journal of Family Counseling, 2004.



Page Numbers


Source

Example

Page range whose first number is over 100

125-35 (not 125-135)

3200-22 (not 3200-3222)

Do not repeat any numbers that can be easily inferred by the reader. This is done to minimize the length of works cited lists.

Online periodical where page numbers are not given

Persuasions, vol. 35, no. 1, 2014, www.jasna.org/persuasions/on-line/vol35no1/byrd.html.

Simply omit page numbers and give the URL after the publication date.



Citing a Source within a Source

Scenario: You read an article by Robbins that cites, on page 270, another article by Wills. You want to cite Will's article, but you have not read Wills's article itself.

Works Cited List

In-Text Citation

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

Your Works Cited list will contain the article you read, by Robbins. Your Works Cited list will NOT contain a citation for Wills's article.

Wills (cited in Robbins 270) notes that...

Your in-text citation gives credit to Wills and shows the source in which you found Wills's idea.

If Robbins directly quotes another author and you want to use that direct quotation, include the abbreviation "qtd. in." For example:

As Freud wrote, "He himself, however, had not noticed this glaringly obvious connection" (qtd. in Robbins 272).



DOIs and URLs

Use a DOI number if one is available. Otherwise use a URL (particularly a  permalink or stable URL, if one is available), and remove the beginning "http://" or "https://" from the link in your citation.

Source

Example

DOI

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

URL

Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson's Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

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Articles

Academic Journals:


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

Free Web

Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson's Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

In print

Jordan, Stephanie. "Mark Morris Marks Purcell: 'Dido and Aeneas' as Danced Opera." Dance Research, vol. 29, no. 2, 2011, pp. 167-213.

More info

Tip:

  • Include volume and issue number (example: vol. 23, no. 1) when both are available.

Magazines:

-Daily or Weekly Magazines


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Updike, John. "Dreamy Wilderness." The New Yorker, vol. 84, no. 35, 3 Nov. 2008, p. 112. Academic OneFile, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.188512674&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Free Web

Grossman, Lev. "Jhumpa Lahiri: The Quiet Laureate." Time, 8 May 2008, content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1738511,00.html.

In print

Aviv, Rachel. "Captain of Her Soul: The Philosopher Martha Nussbaum's Emotions." The New Yorker, vol. 92, no. 22, 25 July 2016, pp. 34-43.

More info



-Monthly Magazines


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Newman, Judith. "Funny Girl." Ladies Home Journal, vol. 31, no. 5, June 2014, pp. 42-47. MasterFILE Premier, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=96041993&login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Free Web

Brady, Heather. "The Well-hidden World of Whiskey Aging." National Geographic, 29 July 2016, www.nationalgeographic.com/people-and-culture/food/the-plate/2016/07/whiskey-distilling-production-entrepreneurs-market-science.

In print

Beard, Alison. "Life's Work." Harvard Business Review, vol. 93, no. 4, Apr. 2015, p. 116.

More info

Tip:

  • When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: Apr.-May 2003.

Newspapers


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Mewshaw, Michael. "David Foster Wallace, a Fan and Elegant Analyst of Tennis." Washington Post, 19 June 2016, p. B6. ProQuest News & Newspapers, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1797768833?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Michaels, Andrew. "Howard Police Teach Life Lessons to Youth Through Chess." Baltimore Sun, 23 Feb. 2016, www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/howard/columbia/ph-ho-cf-chess-club-hcpd-0225-20160222-story.html.

In print

Brown, Patricia Leigh. "Tiffany Glass and Other Tales from the Crypt." New York Times, 5 Sept. 1999, pp. A1+.

More info

Tip:

  • When an article appears on nonconsecutive pages (for example A1 and A6) give only the first page number followed by a "+" as shown above. Give the page number on which the material you've used appears in your in-text citation, for example: (Brown A6).

Encyclopedia Articles


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Myers, Kathleen Ann. "Juana Inés de la Cruz, Sor." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, edited by Bonnie G. Smith, Oxford UP, 2008. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195148909.001.0001/acref-9780195148909-e-541.

More info



Book, Film and Product Reviews


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+. ProQuest, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/433471566?accountid=14580.

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16. PsycARTICLES, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2006-22219-010&site=eds-live&scope=site.

In print

Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+.

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16.

More info

Tip:

  • The name of the work being reviewed should be preceded by "Rev.", and italics or other formatting done as appropriate for items reviewed and the source of the review itself.

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Books


Source

Works Cited List

Basic book

Jans, Nick. The Last Light Breaking: Life among Alaska's Inupiat Eskimos. Alaska Northwest Books, 1993.

Edited book

Miller, John, and Tim Smith, editors. Cape Cod Stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard. Chronicle Books, 1996.

Please see the sample citation for a chapter or article in an anthology below for information on citing a component of an edited collection.

Numbered edition other than the first

Wardle, Elizabeth, and Doug Downs, editors. Writing About Writing: A College Reader. 2nd ed., Bedford/St. Martin's, 2014.

Revised edition

Culliney, John L. Islands in a Far Sea: The Fate of Nature in Hawai'i. Rev. ed., U of Hawai'i P, 2006.

Multi-volume set

Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington. Princeton UP, 1962-63. 2 vols.

In-text citation:(Green 1: 112-14)
"1" is the volume number.

Chapter or article in an anthology

Toibin, Colm. "Send My Roots Rain: Gerard Manley Hopkins." Not Less Than Everything, edited by Catherine Wolff, HarperOne, 2013, 284-99.

If the piece being cited was previously published, give the original date of publication after its title. The page numbers of the chapter or article should follow publication information for the book in your citation.

More info

Note on publisher element:

  • MLA citation style no longer includes the publisher's city, only the publisher's name.
  • If the publisher's name includes "University" or "Press," abbreviate those, without periods, for example:
    • Princeton UP, 2014.
    • U of Pittsburgh P, 1994.

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E-Books


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Barkan, Leonard. Mute Poetry, Speaking Pictures. Princeton UP, 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=503029&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

Free Web

Seton, Ernest Thompson. The Arctic Prairies: A Canoe-Journey of 2,000 Miles in Search of the Caribou. C. Scribner's Sons, 1911. Project Gutenberg,www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/6818.

Book chapter from a library database (suggested format)

Thompson, Kate. "Journal Writing as a Therapeutic Tool." Writing Cures: An Introductory Handbook of Writing in Counselling and Psychotherapy, edited by Gillie Bolton, Routledge, 2004, pp. 72-84. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=116959&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

Library databases may include chapters from books. Information about the publisher of a book can often be found in the description of the chapter in the database. Author and publisher information may be omitted from your citation if it is not available.

More info



Top


Web Sites


Source

Works Cited List

Author is an individual

Inskeep, Steve. "In Iran, A Poet's 700-Year-Old Verses Still Set Hearts Aflame." NPR, 12 Feb. 2016, www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/02/12/466408554/in-iran-a-poets-700-year-old-verses-still-set-hearts-aflame.

The publisher of the Web site, NPR, goes after the title of the Web page.

Author is an organization

Poetry Foundation. "Paul Laurence Dunbar." 2016, www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/paul-laurence-dunbar.

The publisher of the Web site, the Poetry Foundation, is used as the author because no individual author of the Web page content is named on the page.

More info



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Online Classroom Materials


Source

Works Cited List

Course module in UMUC online classroom

UMUC. "What Is Research?" Course module in UMUC LIBS 150 online classroom, Summer 2016, learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/content/147066/viewContent/6332908/View.

No official MLA format for citing online classroom materials exists. This is merely a recommended format to use in citing such documents.

More info



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Technical and Research Reports


Source

Works Cited List

Free Web

United States. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. Mar. 2010, www.gao.gov/assets/310/301876.pdf.

In print

Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. United States Government Accountability Office, Mar. 2010.

More info



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Dissertations and Theses

MLA does not provide official citation formats for dissertations and theses retrieved from online sources, but we recommend the use of the following:

Dissertations


Source

Works Cited List

Dissertations and Theses database

Pecore, Joanna Theresa. "Sounding the Spirit of Cambodia: The Living Tradition of Khmer Music and Dance-Drama in a Washington, D.C. Community." Dissertation, U of Maryland, College Park, 2004. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/305175282?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005, rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1111184984.

In print

Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005.

More info



Master's Theses


Source

Works Cited List

Dissertations and Theses database

Harzbecker, Joseph John. "Life and Death in Washington, D.C.: An Analysis of the Mortality Census of 1850." Master's thesis, U of Massachusetts, Boston, 1999. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304573667?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004, resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05282004-000943.

In print

Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004.

More info

Tip:

  • For Masters of Science theses, replace "MA" with "MS".

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Images

MLA provides limited guidance on citing images: if you are unable to cite the image that you need to using the formats below, please contact us for assistance.

Titled Image


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Martin, Agnes. Morning. 1965. Painting. Tate Gallery, London. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195335798.001.0001/acref-9780195335798-e-1302.

Free Web

Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris, www.musee-orangerie.fr/en/artwork/ship-storm.

The collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris. Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. By Claire Fresches, et al. National Gallery of Art, 2006. p. 232.

More info



Untitled Image

If an image is untitled, create a brief, descriptive title for it. Do not italicize this title or place it in quotes, and capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.

Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Massachusetts Historical Society. Seal of the society set in a landscape with ornaments. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. 17, 1879-1880, p. iii. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/25079540.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Muybridge, Eadweard. Photograph of a horse running. 1887. National Gallery, London. Eadweard Muybridge: The Father of the Motion Picture. By Gordon Hendricks. Grossman, 1975. p. 202.

Give the number of the page that the image appears on after the book's publication information.

More info

Tip:

  • If known, the collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

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Streaming Videos


Source

Works Cited List

Free Web

McGregor, Wayne. "A Choreographer's Creative Process in Real Time." TED, June 2012. www.ted.com/talks/wayne_mcgregor_a_choreographer_s_creative_process_in_real_time.

More info



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Interviews and E-mail Messages


Source

Works Cited List

Interviews

Brown, Jane. Personal interview. 18 Nov. 2006.

Smith, John. Telephone interview. 12 Aug. 2006.

Whiting, Jennifer. E-mail interview. 2-10 Dec. 2005.

To cite an interview you have conducted as part of your research, give the name of the person you interviewed, the type of interview, and the date or range of dates.

E-mail message

Doe, Jane. "Re: Why Poetry Matters." Received by John Smith, 1 Aug. 2016.

Give the name of the person who wrote the email. The title is the subject line of the email. For "Received by," the name will usually be your own. Finish with the date of the email.

More info



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Why we use parenthetical / in-text citations

Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

Place the parenthetical citation where there is a pause in the sentence – normally before the end of a sentence or a comma. The in-text citation will differ depending on how much information you provide within the sentence.

Example with author’s name in text:

Johnson argues this point (12-13).

or

This point had already been argued (Johnson 12-13).


Citing sources with more than one author

If you use sources with the same author surnames, then include a first name initial. If the two sources have authors with the same initials, then include their full names:[su_spacer]

Example:

(J. Johnson 12-13).

or

(John Johnson 12-13).

If there are two or three authors of the source, include their last names in the order they appear on the source:

Example:

(Smith, Wollensky, and Johnson 45).

If there are more than three authors, you can cite all the authors with their last name, or you can cite the first author followed by “et al.” Follow what is shown the works cited list.

Example:

(Smith et al. 45).


Citing sources without an author

Some sources do not have authors or contributors – for instance, when you cite some websites. Instead, refer to the name of the source in your parenthetical citation in place of the author. Shorten / abbreviate the name of the source but ensure that your reader can easily identify it in your works cited (abbreviate the title starting with the same word in which it is alphabetized). Punctuate with quotations or italicize as you would in its works cited form (a book is italicized; an article is in quotes).

Examples:

Double agents are still widely in use (Spies 12-15, 17).

With prices of energy at new highs, bikes have been increasingly used (“Alternative Transportation” 89).


Citing part of a work

When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, paragraphs or volumes. When the identifier is preceded by an abbreviation or word, place a comma between the identifier and the source reference.


Part of a multivolume work

Example:

It is arguably the most innovative period in history (Webster, vol 4).


Chapter within a book (if no specific numbers can be referenced)

Example:

The electoral college undermines democracy (Sanders, “Government Injustices”).


Article in a periodical

Example:

Allen claims there is an inverse correlation between higher taxes and patriotic feelings worldwide (B2).

When citing a specific page(s) of a multivolume work, precede the page number by the volume number and a colon. Do not separate by a comma.

It was arguably the most innovative period in history (Webster 4:12-15).

Use “par.” or “pars.” when referring to specific paragraphs.

The marketing dollars of big studio films has overshadowed good indie movies (Anderson, pars. 12-34).


Citing group or corporate authors

In your parenthetical citation, cite a corporate author like you would a normal author. Preferably, incorporate the corporate author in your text instead of the parenthetical citation.

Example:

Facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (American Medical Association 12-43).

As noted by the American Medical Association, facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (12-43).


Citing an entire source

When citing an entire work, there are no specific page numbers to refer to. Therefore it is preferable to refer to the source within the text itself with either the author or the title of the source.

Example:

Hartford suggests the Internet provides more distractions than it does information.


Citing multiple works by the same author

If you reference more than one source by the same author, distinguish the parenthetical citations by including the name of the source. Use a comma to separate the author from the source.

Example:

Wars can be economic catalysts (Friedman, World 77-80).

Industrialized nations are better equipped to rebound from recessions (Friedman, “High Tides” 56).


Citing indirect sources

When an original source is unavailable, then cite the secondhand source – for instance, a lecture in a conference proceedings. When quoting or paraphrasing a quote, write “qtd. in” before the author and pages.

Example:

John Murray calls Tim Smith “interesting but egotistical” (qtd. in Jesrani 34).


Citing literary / classic and religious works

For works such as novels, plays and other classic works, it’s helpful to provide further identifying information along with the page information. Do this by adding a semicolon and then the identifying information following the page number.

Example:

(Tolstoy 5; pt. 2, ch. 3).

When citing classic poems and plays, replace page numbers with division numbers (part, book, scene, act). The below refers to book 10 line 5. Bear in mind the divisions and the way they are written can vary by source.

Example:

Fear plays a role in Homer’s Odyssey (10.5).

The title of books in the Bible and other famous literary works should be abbreviated.

(New Jerusalem Bible, Gen. 2.6-9).


Placing parenthetical citations in direct quotations

When directly quoting a source, place the parenthetical citation after the quote.

Example:

Sanders explains that economic woes are due to “the mortgage crisis and poor risk assessment” (20).

Place the parenthetical citation at the end of an indented quotation. There should be no period after the parenthetical citation. The last sentence of the indented quote should look like:

Example:

It’s unclear whether multilateral tariffs are disruptive to bilateral talks. (Evert 30-31)


Citing online sources

Generally, follow the same principals of parenthetical citations to cite online sources. Refer to the author, and if possible, a permanent identifier that would be the same for any reader.

Examples:

The economy will rebound with the new monetary policies (Smith).

Solar power will become the primary source of energy (Williams 2).


Citing online sources with no author

If there is no author, use the title that begins the citation, either the article or website title. Be sure it also takes the same formatting, i.e. articles are in quotes and website titles are italicized. Shorten / abbreviate the name of the source but ensure that your reader can easily identify it in your works cited (abbreviate the title starting with the same word in which it is alphabetized).

Examples:

Elephants are thought to be one of the smartest mammals (“Smart Elephants”).

Nineteen men and women were convicted (Salem Witchcraft Trials).

Note: Ideally, when citing online sources, try to reference the source within your sentence, with either the author or the title to avoid writing a parenthetical citation.


Where to put the parenthetical citations:

  • Place parenthetical citations at the end of the sentence you are paraphrasing and quoting. For example: The destruction of the argentine is due to many socioeconomic factors (Taylor 33).
  • Even when quoting, place the parenthetical citations after the quotations.

Example:

“Mamma always said stupid is as stupid does” (Gump 89).


Long quotes:

When quoting four lines or more, indent every line you are quoting by one inch (or 10 spaces) and do not use quotes.

Example:

The use of nuclear weapons in today’s society is strikingly alarming. Though the United States is the only country to employ it in the past, they are at the same time the country that condemns its use the most. While this may seem hypocritical, is it the most proper action for the United States to make as the global leader. (Taparia 9)


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